package Statistics::ChiSquare;
# ChiSquare.pm
#
# Jon Orwant, orwant@media.mit.edu
# David Cantrell, david@cantrell.org.uk
#
# 31 Oct 95, revised Mon Oct 18 12:16:47 1999, and again November 2001
# to fix an off-by-one error
#
# Nov 2003, revised to support a larger table
#
# Copyright 1995, 1999, 2001 Jon Orwant. All rights reserved.
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
# modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
#
# some sections Copyright 2003 David Cantrell
use strict;
use vars qw($VERSION @ISA @EXPORT);
require Exporter;
@ISA = qw(Exporter);
@EXPORT = qw(chisquare);
$VERSION = '0.6';
my @chilevels = ();
my @chitable = ();
$chilevels[$_] = [100, 99, 95, 90, 70, 50, 30, 10, 5, 1] foreach(1..20);
# JONO's data 99% 95% 90% 70% 50% 30% 10% 5% 1%
$chitable[1] = [ 0.00016, 0.0039, 0.016, 0.15, 0.46, 1.07, 2.71, 3.84, 6.64];
$chitable[2] = [ 0.020, 0.10, 0.21, 0.71, 1.39, 2.41, 4.60, 5.99, 9.21];
$chitable[3] = [ 0.12, 0.35, 0.58, 1.42, 2.37, 3.67, 6.25, 7.82, 11.34];
$chitable[4] = [ 0.30, 0.71, 1.06, 2.20, 3.36, 4.88, 7.78, 9.49, 13.28];
$chitable[5] = [ 0.55, 1.14, 1.61, 3.00, 4.35, 6.06, 9.24, 11.07, 15.09];
$chitable[6] = [ 0.87, 1.64, 2.20, 3.83, 5.35, 7.23, 10.65, 12.59, 16.81];
$chitable[7] = [ 1.24, 2.17, 2.83, 4.67, 6.35, 8.38, 12.02, 14.07, 18.48];
$chitable[8] = [ 1.65, 2.73, 3.49, 5.53, 7.34, 9.52, 13.36, 15.51, 20.09];
$chitable[9] = [ 2.09, 3.33, 4.17, 6.39, 8.34, 10.66, 14.68, 16.92, 21.67];
$chitable[10] = [ 2.56, 3.94, 4.86, 7.27, 9.34, 11.78, 15.99, 18.31, 23.21];
$chitable[11] = [ 3.05, 4.58, 5.58, 8.15, 10.34, 12.90, 17.28, 19.68, 24.73];
$chitable[12] = [ 3.57, 5.23, 6.30, 9.03, 11.34, 14.01, 18.55, 21.03, 26.22];
$chitable[13] = [ 4.11, 5.89, 7.04, 9.93, 12.34, 15.12, 19.81, 22.36, 27.69];
$chitable[14] = [ 4.66, 6.57, 7.79, 10.82, 13.34, 16.22, 21.06, 23.69, 29.14];
$chitable[15] = [ 5.23, 7.26, 8.55, 11.72, 14.34, 17.32, 22.31, 25.00, 30.58];
$chitable[16] = [ 5.81, 7.96, 9.31, 12.62, 15.34, 18.42, 23.54, 26.30, 32.00];
$chitable[17] = [ 6.41, 8.67, 10.09, 13.53, 16.34, 19.51, 24.77, 27.59, 33.41];
$chitable[18] = [ 7.00, 9.39, 10.87, 14.44, 17.34, 20.60, 25.99, 28.87, 34.81];
$chitable[19] = [ 7.63, 10.12, 11.65, 15.35, 18.34, 21.69, 27.20, 30.14, 36.19];
$chitable[20] = [ 8.26, 10.85, 12.44, 16.27, 19.34, 22.78, 28.41, 31.41, 37.57];
$chilevels[$_] = [100, 99, 95, 90, 75, 50, 25, 10, 5, 1] foreach(21..30);
# DCANTRELL's data 99% 95% 90% 75% 50% 25% 10% 5% 1%
$chitable[21] = [ 8.90, 11.59, 13.24, 16.34, 20.34, 24.93, 29.62, 32.67, 38.93];
$chitable[22] = [ 9.54, 12.34, 14.04, 17.24, 21.34, 26.04, 30.81, 33.92, 40.29];
$chitable[23] = [10.20, 13.09, 14.85, 18.14, 22.34, 27.14, 32.01, 35.17, 41.64];
$chitable[24] = [10.86, 13.85, 15.66, 19.04, 23.34, 28.24, 33.20, 36.42, 42.98];
$chitable[25] = [11.52, 14.61, 16.47, 19.94, 24.34, 39.34, 34.38, 37.65, 44.31];
$chitable[26] = [12.20, 15.38, 17.29, 20.84, 25.34, 30.43, 35.56, 38.89, 45.64];
$chitable[27] = [12.87, 16.15, 18.11, 21.75, 26.34, 31.53, 36.74, 40.11, 46.96];
$chitable[28] = [13.56, 16.93, 18.94, 22.66, 27.34, 32.62, 37.92, 41.34, 48.28];
$chitable[29] = [14.26, 17.71, 19.77, 23.57, 28.34, 33.71, 39.09, 42.56, 49.59];
$chitable[30] = [14.95, 18.49, 20.60, 24.48, 29.34, 34.80, 40.26, 43.77, 50.89];
# assume the expected probability distribution is uniform
sub chisquare {
my @data = @_;
@data = @{$data[0]} if @data == 1 and ref($data[0]);
return "There's no data!" unless @data;
my $degrees_of_freedom = scalar(@data) - 1;
my ($chisquare, $num_samples, $expected, $i) = (0, 0, 0, 0);
if (! ref($chitable[$degrees_of_freedom])) {
return "I can't handle ".scalar(@data)." choices without a better table.";
}
foreach (@data) { $num_samples += $_ }
$expected = $num_samples / scalar(@data);
# return "There's no data!" unless $expected;
foreach (@data) {
$chisquare += (($_ - $expected) ** 2) / $expected;
}
foreach (@{$chitable[$degrees_of_freedom]}) {
if ($chisquare < $_) {
return "There's a >".$chilevels[$degrees_of_freedom]->[$i+1]."% chance, ".
"and a <".$chilevels[$degrees_of_freedom]->[$i]."% chance, that this data is random.";
}
$i++;
}
return "There's a <".(@{$chilevels[$degrees_of_freedom]})[-1]."% chance that this data is random.";
}
1;
__END__
=head1 NAME
C - How well-distributed is your data?
=head1 SYNOPSIS
use Statistics::ChiSquare;
print chisquare(@array_of_numbers);
Statistics::ChiSquare is available at a CPAN site near you.
=head1 DESCRIPTION
Suppose you flip a coin 100 times, and it turns up heads 70 times.
I
Suppose you roll a die 100 times, and it shows 30 sixes.
I
In statistics, the B test calculates how well a series
of numbers fits a distribution. In this module, we only test for
whether results fit an even distribution. It doesn't simply say
"yes" or "no". Instead, it
gives you a I, which sets upper and lower bounds
on the likelihood that the variation in your data is due to chance.
See the examples below.
If you've ever studied elementary genetics, you've probably heard
about Gregor Mendel. He was a wacky Austrian botanist who discovered
(in 1865) that traits could be inherited in a predictable fashion. He
did lots of experiments with cross breeding peas: green peas, yellow
peas, smooth peas, wrinkled peas. A veritable Brave New World of legumes.
But Mendel faked his data. A statistician by the name of R. A. Fisher used
the chi-square test to prove it.
=head1 FUNCTIONS
=head2 chisquare
There's just one function in this module: chisquare(). Instead of
returning the bounds on the confidence interval in a tidy little
two-element array, it returns an English string. This was a deliberate
design choice---many people misinterpret chi-square results, and the
string helps clarify the meaning.
The string returned by chisquare() will always match one of these patterns:
"There's a >\d+% chance, and a <\d+% chance, that this data is random."
or
"There's a <\d+% chance that this data is random."
or
"I can't handle \d+ choices without a better table."
That last one deserves a bit more explanation. The "modern"
chi-square test uses a table of values (based on Pearson's
approximation) to avoid expensive calculations. Thanks to the table,
the chisquare() calculation is very fast, but there are some
collections of data it can't handle, including any collection with more
than 31 slots. So you can't calculate the randomness of a 50-sided
die.
You will also notice that the percentage points that have been tabulated
for different numbers of data points - that is, for different degrees of
freedom - differ. The table in Jon Orwant's original version has
data tabulated for 100%, 99%, 95%, 90%, 70%, 50%, 30%, 10%, 5%, and 1%
likelihoods. Data added later by David Cantrell is tabulated for
100%, 99%, 95%, 90%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, and 1% likelihoods.
=head1 EXAMPLES
Imagine a coin flipped 1000 times. The expected outcome is
500 heads and 500 tails:
@coin = (500, 500);
print chisquare(@coin);
prints "There's a >90% chance, and a <100% chance, that this data is random.
Imagine a die rolled 60 times that shows sixes just a wee bit too often.
@die1 = (8, 7, 9, 8, 8, 20);
print chisquare(@die1);
prints "There's a >1% chance, and a <5% chance, that this data is random.
Imagine a die rolled 600 times that shows sixes B too often.
@die2 = (80, 70, 90, 80, 80, 200);
print chisquare(@die2);
prints "There's a <1% chance that this data is random."
How random is rand()?
srand(time ^ $$);
@rands = ();
for ($i = 0; $i < 60000; $i++) {
$slot = int(rand(6));
$rands[$slot]++;
}
print "@rands\n";
print chisquare(@rands);
prints (on my machine)
10156 10041 9991 9868 10034 9910
There's a >10% chance, and a <50% chance, that this data is random.
So much for pseudorandom number generation.
=head1 AUTHORS and LICENCE
Jon Orwant, Readable Publications, Inc; orwant@oreilly.com
Maintained and updated since October 2003 by David Cantrell,
david@cantrell.org.uk
This software is free-as-in-speech software, and may be used, distributed,
and modified under the terms of either the GNU General Public Licence
version 2 or the Artistic Licence. It's up to you which one you use. The
full text of the licences can be found in the files GPL2.txt and
ARTISTIC.txt, respectively.
=cut