=encoding utf8 =head1 NAME Mail::Message::Construct::Build - building a Mail::Message from components =head1 SYNOPSIS my $msg3 = Mail::Message->build (From => 'me', data => "only two\nlines\n"); my $msg4 = Mail::Message->buildFromBody($body); =head1 DESCRIPTION Complex functionality on L objects is implemented in different files which are autoloaded. This file implements the functionality related to building of messages from various components. =head1 METHODS =head2 Constructing a message =over 4 =item Mail::Message-EB([MESSAGE|PART|BODY], CONTENT) Simplified message object builder. In case a MESSAGE or message PART is specified, a new message is created with the same body to start with, but new headers. A BODY may be specified as well. However, there are more ways to add data simply. The CONTENT is a list of key-value pairs and header field objects. The keys which start with a capital are used as header-lines. Lower-cased fields are used for other purposes as listed below. Each field may be used more than once. Pairs where the value is C are ignored. If more than one C, C, and C is specified, a multi-parted message is created. Some C fields are treated separately: to enforce the content lines of the produced message body B it has been created. For instance, to explicitly state that you wish a C in stead of the default C. If you wish to specify the type per datum, you need to start playing with L objects yourself. This C method will use L when the body object has been constructed. Together, they produce your message. -Option--Default attach undef data undef file undef files [ ] head undef =over 2 =item attach => BODY|PART|MESSAGE|ARRAY One attachment to the message. Each attachment can be full MESSAGE, a PART, or a BODY. Any MESSAGE will get encapsulated into a C body. You can specify many items (may be of different types) at once. attach => $folder->message(3)->decoded # body attach => $folder->message(3) # message attach => [ $msg1, $msg2->part(6), $msg3->body ]; =item data => STRING|ARRAY-OF-LINES The text for one part, specified as one STRING, or an ARRAY of lines. Each line, including the last, must be terminated by a newline. This argument is passed to L to construct one. data => [ "line 1\n", "line 2\n" ] # array of lines data => <<'TEXT' # string line 1 line 2 TEXT =item file => FILENAME|FILEHANDLE|IOHANDLE Create a body where the data is read from the specified FILENAME, FILEHANDLE, or object of type IO::Handle. Also this body is used to create a L. my $in = IO::File->new('/etc/passwd', 'r'); file => 'picture.jpg' # filename file => \*MYINPUTFILE # file handle file => $in # any IO::Handle open my $in, '<:raw', '/etc/passwd'; # alternative for IO::File =item files => ARRAY-OF-FILE See option file, but then an array reference collection more of them. =item head => HEAD Start with a prepared header, otherwise one is created. =back example: my $msg = Mail::Message->build ( From => 'me@home.nl' , To => Mail::Address->new('your name', 'you@yourplace.aq') , Cc => 'everyone@example.com' , $other_message->get('Bcc') , data => [ "This is\n", "the first part of\n", "the message\n" ] , file => 'myself.gif' , file => 'you.jpg' , attach => $signature ); my $msg = Mail::Message->build ( To => 'you' , 'Content-Type' => 'text/html' , data => "" ); =item Mail::Message-EB(BODY, [HEAD], HEADERS) Shape a message around a BODY. Bodies have information about their content in them, which is used to construct a header for the message. You may specify a HEAD object which is pre-initialized, or one is created for you (also when HEAD is C). Next to that, more HEADERS can be specified which are stored in that header. Header fields are added in order, and before the header lines as defined by the body are taken. They may be supplied as key-value pairs or L objects. In case of a key-value pair, the field's name is to be used as key and the value is a string, address (L object), or array of addresses. A C, C, and C field are added unless supplied. example: my $type = Mail::Message::Field->new('Content-Type', 'text/html' , 'charset="us-ascii"'); my @to = ( Mail::Address->new('Your name', 'you@example.com') , 'world@example.info' ); my $msg = Mail::Message->buildFromBody ( $body , From => 'me@example.nl' , To => \@to , $type ); =back =head1 DETAILS =head2 Building a message =head3 Rapid building Most messages you need to construct are relatively simple. Therefore, this module provides a method to prepare a message with only one method call: L. =head3 Compared to MIME::Entity::build() The C method in MailBox is modelled after the C method as provided by MIMETools, but with a few simplifications: =over 4 =item When a keys starts with a capital, than it is always a header field =item When a keys is lower-cased, it is always something else =item You use the real field-names, not abbreviations =item All field names are accepted =item You may specify field objects between key-value pairs =item A lot of facts are auto-detected, like content-type and encoding =item You can create a multipart at once =back Hum, reading the list above... what is equivalent? L is not that simple after all! Let's look at an example from MIME::Entity's manual page: ### Create the top-level, and set up the mail headers: $top = MIME::Entity->build(Type => "multipart/mixed", From => 'me@myhost.com', To => 'you@yourhost.com', Subject => "Hello, nurse!"); ### Attachment #1: a simple text document: $top->attach(Path=>"./testin/short.txt"); ### Attachment #2: a GIF file: $top->attach(Path => "./docs/mime-sm.gif", Type => "image/gif", Encoding => "base64"); ### Attachment #3: text we'll create with text we have on-hand: $top->attach(Data => $contents); The MailBox equivalent could be my $msg = Mail::Message->build ( From => 'me@myhost.com' , To => 'you@yourhost.com' , Subject => "Hello, nurse!" , file => "./testin/short.txt" , file => "./docs/mime-sm.gif" , data => $contents ); One of the simplifications is that L is used to lookup the right content type and optimal transfer encoding. Good values for content-disposition and such are added as well. =head3 build, starting with nothing See L. =head3 buildFromBody, body becomes message See L. =head3 The Content-* fields The various C fields are not as harmless as they look. For instance, the "Content-Type" field will have an effect on the default transfer encoding. When a message is built this way: my $msg = Mail::Message->build ( 'Content-Type' => 'video/mpeg3' , 'Content-Transfer-Encoding' => 'base64' , 'Content-Disposition' => 'attachment' , file => '/etc/passwd' ); then first a C body is constructed (MIME::Types does not find an extension on the filename so defaults to C), with no encoding. Only when that body is ready, the new type and requested encodings are set. The content of the body will get base64 encoded, because it is requested that way. What basically happens is this: my $head = ...other header lines...; my $body = Mail::Message::Body::Lines->new(file => '/etc/passwd'); $body->type('video/mpeg3'); $body->transferEncoding('base64'); $body->diposition('attachment'); my $msg = Mail::Message->buildFromBody($body, $head); A safer way to construct the message is: my $body = Mail::Message::Body::Lines->new ( file => '/etc/passwd' , mime_type => 'video/mpeg3' , transfer_encoding => 'base64' , disposition => 'attachment' ); my $msg = Mail::Message->buildFromBody ( $body , ...other header lines... ); In the latter program, you will immediately start with a body of the right type. =head1 DIAGNOSTICS =over 4 =item Error: Only build() Mail::Message's; they are not in a folder yet You may wish to construct a message to be stored in a some kind of folder, but you need to do that in two steps. First, create a normal L, and then add it to the folder. During this L process, the message will get L-d into the right message type, adding storage information and the like. =back =head1 SEE ALSO This module is part of Mail-Box distribution version 2.110, built on January 05, 2014. Website: F =head1 LICENSE Copyrights 2001-2014 by [Mark Overmeer]. For other contributors see ChangeLog. This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See F