#include "erfa.h"
int eraStarpv(double ra, double dec,
double pmr, double pmd, double px, double rv,
double pv[2][3])
/*
** - - - - - - - - - -
** e r a S t a r p v
** - - - - - - - - - -
**
** Convert star catalog coordinates to position+velocity vector.
**
** Given (Note 1):
** ra double right ascension (radians)
** dec double declination (radians)
** pmr double RA proper motion (radians/year)
** pmd double Dec proper motion (radians/year)
** px double parallax (arcseconds)
** rv double radial velocity (km/s, positive = receding)
**
** Returned (Note 2):
** pv double[2][3] pv-vector (AU, AU/day)
**
** Returned (function value):
** int status:
** 0 = no warnings
** 1 = distance overridden (Note 6)
** 2 = excessive speed (Note 7)
** 4 = solution didn't converge (Note 8)
** else = binary logical OR of the above
**
** Notes:
**
** 1) The star data accepted by this function are "observables" for an
** imaginary observer at the solar-system barycenter. Proper motion
** and radial velocity are, strictly, in terms of barycentric
** coordinate time, TCB. For most practical applications, it is
** permissible to neglect the distinction between TCB and ordinary
** "proper" time on Earth (TT/TAI). The result will, as a rule, be
** limited by the intrinsic accuracy of the proper-motion and
** radial-velocity data; moreover, the pv-vector is likely to be
** merely an intermediate result, so that a change of time unit
** would cancel out overall.
**
** In accordance with normal star-catalog conventions, the object's
** right ascension and declination are freed from the effects of
** secular aberration. The frame, which is aligned to the catalog
** equator and equinox, is Lorentzian and centered on the SSB.
**
** 2) The resulting position and velocity pv-vector is with respect to
** the same frame and, like the catalog coordinates, is freed from
** the effects of secular aberration. Should the "coordinate
** direction", where the object was located at the catalog epoch, be
** required, it may be obtained by calculating the magnitude of the
** position vector pv[0][0-2] dividing by the speed of light in
** AU/day to give the light-time, and then multiplying the space
** velocity pv[1][0-2] by this light-time and adding the result to
** pv[0][0-2].
**
** Summarizing, the pv-vector returned is for most stars almost
** identical to the result of applying the standard geometrical
** "space motion" transformation. The differences, which are the
** subject of the Stumpff paper referenced below, are:
**
** (i) In stars with significant radial velocity and proper motion,
** the constantly changing light-time distorts the apparent proper
** motion. Note that this is a classical, not a relativistic,
** effect.
**
** (ii) The transformation complies with special relativity.
**
** 3) Care is needed with units. The star coordinates are in radians
** and the proper motions in radians per Julian year, but the
** parallax is in arcseconds; the radial velocity is in km/s, but
** the pv-vector result is in AU and AU/day.
**
** 4) The RA proper motion is in terms of coordinate angle, not true
** angle. If the catalog uses arcseconds for both RA and Dec proper
** motions, the RA proper motion will need to be divided by cos(Dec)
** before use.
**
** 5) Straight-line motion at constant speed, in the inertial frame,
** is assumed.
**
** 6) An extremely small (or zero or negative) parallax is interpreted
** to mean that the object is on the "celestial sphere", the radius
** of which is an arbitrary (large) value (see the constant PXMIN).
** When the distance is overridden in this way, the status,
** initially zero, has 1 added to it.
**
** 7) If the space velocity is a significant fraction of c (see the
** constant VMAX), it is arbitrarily set to zero. When this action
** occurs, 2 is added to the status.
**
** 8) The relativistic adjustment involves an iterative calculation.
** If the process fails to converge within a set number (IMAX) of
** iterations, 4 is added to the status.
**
** 9) The inverse transformation is performed by the function
** eraPvstar.
**
** Called:
** eraS2pv spherical coordinates to pv-vector
** eraPm modulus of p-vector
** eraZp zero p-vector
** eraPn decompose p-vector into modulus and direction
** eraPdp scalar product of two p-vectors
** eraSxp multiply p-vector by scalar
** eraPmp p-vector minus p-vector
** eraPpp p-vector plus p-vector
**
** Reference:
**
** Stumpff, P., 1985, Astron.Astrophys. 144, 232-240.
**
** Copyright (C) 2013-2014, NumFOCUS Foundation.
** Derived, with permission, from the SOFA library. See notes at end of file.
*/
{
/* Smallest allowed parallax */
static const double PXMIN = 1e-7;
/* Largest allowed speed (fraction of c) */
static const double VMAX = 0.5;
/* Maximum number of iterations for relativistic solution */
static const int IMAX = 100;
int i, iwarn;
double w, r, rd, rad, decd, v, x[3], usr[3], ust[3],
vsr, vst, betst, betsr, bett, betr,
dd, ddel, ur[3], ut[3],
d = 0.0, del = 0.0, /* to prevent */
odd = 0.0, oddel = 0.0, /* compiler */
od = 0.0, odel = 0.0; /* warnings */
/* Distance (AU). */
if (px >= PXMIN) {
w = px;
iwarn = 0;
} else {
w = PXMIN;
iwarn = 1;
}
r = ERFA_DR2AS / w;
/* Radial velocity (AU/day). */
rd = ERFA_DAYSEC * rv * 1e3 / ERFA_DAU;
/* Proper motion (radian/day). */
rad = pmr / ERFA_DJY;
decd = pmd / ERFA_DJY;
/* To pv-vector (AU,AU/day). */
eraS2pv(ra, dec, r, rad, decd, rd, pv);
/* If excessive velocity, arbitrarily set it to zero. */
v = eraPm(pv[1]);
if (v / ERFA_DC > VMAX) {
eraZp(pv[1]);
iwarn += 2;
}
/* Isolate the radial component of the velocity (AU/day). */
eraPn(pv[0], &w, x);
vsr = eraPdp(x, pv[1]);
eraSxp(vsr, x, usr);
/* Isolate the transverse component of the velocity (AU/day). */
eraPmp(pv[1], usr, ust);
vst = eraPm(ust);
/* Special-relativity dimensionless parameters. */
betsr = vsr / ERFA_DC;
betst = vst / ERFA_DC;
/* Determine the inertial-to-observed relativistic correction terms. */
bett = betst;
betr = betsr;
for (i = 0; i < IMAX; i++) {
d = 1.0 + betr;
del = sqrt(1.0 - betr*betr - bett*bett) - 1.0;
betr = d * betsr + del;
bett = d * betst;
if (i > 0) {
dd = fabs(d - od);
ddel = fabs(del - odel);
if ((i > 1) && (dd >= odd) && (ddel >= oddel)) break;
odd = dd;
oddel = ddel;
}
od = d;
odel = del;
}
if (i >= IMAX) iwarn += 4;
/* Replace observed radial velocity with inertial value. */
w = (betsr != 0.0) ? d + del / betsr : 1.0;
eraSxp(w, usr, ur);
/* Replace observed tangential velocity with inertial value. */
eraSxp(d, ust, ut);
/* Combine the two to obtain the inertial space velocity. */
eraPpp(ur, ut, pv[1]);
/* Return the status. */
return iwarn;
}
/*----------------------------------------------------------------------
**
**
** Copyright (C) 2013-2014, NumFOCUS Foundation.
** All rights reserved.
**
** This library is derived, with permission, from the International
** Astronomical Union's "Standards of Fundamental Astronomy" library,
** available from http://www.iausofa.org.
**
** The ERFA version is intended to retain identical functionality to
** the SOFA library, but made distinct through different function and
** file names, as set out in the SOFA license conditions. The SOFA
** original has a role as a reference standard for the IAU and IERS,
** and consequently redistribution is permitted only in its unaltered
** state. The ERFA version is not subject to this restriction and
** therefore can be included in distributions which do not support the
** concept of "read only" software.
**
** Although the intent is to replicate the SOFA API (other than
** replacement of prefix names) and results (with the exception of
** bugs; any that are discovered will be fixed), SOFA is not
** responsible for any errors found in this version of the library.
**
** If you wish to acknowledge the SOFA heritage, please acknowledge
** that you are using a library derived from SOFA, rather than SOFA
** itself.
**
**
** TERMS AND CONDITIONS
**
** Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
** modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
** are met:
**
** 1 Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
** notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
**
** 2 Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
** notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
** the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
** distribution.
**
** 3 Neither the name of the Standards Of Fundamental Astronomy Board,
** the International Astronomical Union nor the names of its
** contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived
** from this software without specific prior written permission.
**
** THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
** "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
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** FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
** COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
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** BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
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** POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
**
*/