=head1 NAME
Astro::Coord::ECI::Utils - Utility routines for astronomical calculations
=head1 SYNOPSIS
use Astro::Coord::ECI::Utils qw{:all};
my $now = time ();
print "The current Julian day is ", julianday ($now);
=head1 DESCRIPTION
This module was written to provide a home for all the constants and
utility subroutines used by B and its descendents.
What ended up here was anything that was essentially a subroutine, not
a method.
Because figuring out how to convert to and from Perl time bids fair to
become complicated, this module is also responsible for figuring out how
that is done, and exporting whatever is needful to export. See C<:time>
below for the gory details.
This package exports nothing by default. But all the constants,
variables, and subroutines documented below are exportable, and the
following export tags may be used:
=over
=item :all
This imports everything exportable into your name space.
=item :params
This imports the parameter validation routines C<__classisa> and
C<__instance>.
=item :time
This imports the time routines into your name space. If
L is available, it will be loaded, and both
this tag and C<:all> will import C, C, C, and
C into your name space. Otherwise, C
will be loaded, and both this tag and C<:all> will import C and
C into your name space.
=item :vector
This imports the vector arithmetic routines. It includes anything whose
name begins with C<'vector_'>.
=back
Under Perl 5.6 you may find that, if you use any of the above tags, you
need to specify them first in your import list.
=head2 The following constants are exportable:
AU = number of kilometers in an astronomical unit
JD_OF_EPOCH = the Julian Day of Perl epoch 0
LIGHTYEAR = number of kilometers in a light year
PARSEC = number of kilometers in a parsec
PERL2000 = January 1 2000, 12 noon universal, in Perl time
PI = the circle ratio, computed as atan2 (0, -1)
PIOVER2 = half the circle ratio
SECSPERDAY = the number of seconds in a day
SECS_PER_SIDERIAL_DAY = seconds in a siderial day
SPEED_OF_LIGHT = speed of light in kilometers per second
TWOPI = twice the circle ratio
=head2 The following global variables are exportable:
=head3 $DATETIMEFORMAT
This variable represents the POSIX::strftime format used to convert
times to strings. The default value is '%a %b %d %Y %H:%M:%S' to be
consistent with the behavior of gmtime (or, to be precise, the
behavior of ctime as documented on my system).
=head3 $JD_GREGORIAN
This variable represents the Julian Day of the switch from Julian to
Gregorian calendars. This is used by date2jd(), jd2date(), and the
routines which depend on them, for deciding whether the date is to be
interpreted as in the Julian or Gregorian calendar. Its initial setting
is 2299160.5, which represents midnight October 15 1582 in the Gregorian
calendar, which is the date that calendar was first adopted. This is
slightly different than the value of 2299161 (noon of the same day) used
by Jean Meeus.
If you are interested in historical calculations, you may wish to reset
this appropriately. If you use date2jd to calculate the new value, be
aware of the effect the current setting of $JD_GREGORIAN has on the
interpretation of the date you give.
=head2 In addition, the following subroutines are exportable:
=over 4
=cut
package Astro::Coord::ECI::Utils;
use strict;
use warnings;
our $VERSION = '0.056';
our @ISA = qw{Exporter};
use Carp;
## use Config;
use Data::Dumper;
use POSIX qw{floor strftime};
use Scalar::Util qw{ blessed };
my @time_routines;
BEGIN {
# NOTE WELL
#
# The logic here should be consistent with the optional-module text
# emitted by inc/Astro/Coord/ECI/Recommend.pm.
#
eval {
## $Config{use64bitint} and return 0;
require Time::y2038;
Time::y2038->import();
@time_routines = ( qw{ gmtime localtime timegm timelocal } );
1;
} or do {
require Time::Local;
Time::Local->import();
@time_routines = ( qw{ timegm timelocal } );
};
}
our @EXPORT;
our @EXPORT_OK = ( qw{
AU $DATETIMEFORMAT $JD_GREGORIAN JD_OF_EPOCH LIGHTYEAR PARSEC
PERL2000 PI PIOVER2 SECSPERDAY SECS_PER_SIDERIAL_DAY
SPEED_OF_LIGHT TWOPI acos asin
atmospheric_extinction date2epoch date2jd deg2rad distsq
dynamical_delta embodies epoch2datetime equation_of_time
find_first_true intensity_to_magnitude jcent2000 jd2date
jd2datetime jday2000 julianday keplers_equation load_module
looks_like_number max min mod2pi nutation_in_longitude
nutation_in_obliquity obliquity omega rad2deg tan theta0 thetag
vector_cross_product vector_dot_product vector_magnitude
vector_unitize
__classisa __default_station __instance },
@time_routines );
our %EXPORT_TAGS = (
all => \@EXPORT_OK,
params => [ qw{ __classisa __instance } ],
time => \@time_routines,
vector => [ grep { m/ \A vector_ /smx } @EXPORT_OK ],
);
use constant AU => 149597870; # 1 astronomical unit, per
# Meeus, Appendix I pg 407.
use constant LIGHTYEAR => 9.4607e12; # 1 light-year, per Meeus,
# Appendix I pg 407.
use constant PARSEC => 30.8568e12; # 1 parsec, per Meeus,
# Appendix I pg 407.
use constant PERL2000 => timegm (0, 0, 12, 1, 0, 100);
use constant PI => atan2 (0, -1);
use constant PIOVER2 => PI / 2;
use constant SECSPERDAY => 86400;
use constant SECS_PER_SIDERIAL_DAY => 86164.0905; # Appendix I, page 408.
use constant SPEED_OF_LIGHT => 299792.458; # KM/sec, per NIST.
### use constant SOLAR_RADIUS => 1392000 / 2; # Meeus, Appendix I, page 407.
use constant TWOPI => PI * 2;
=item $angle = acos ($value)
This subroutine calculates the arc in radians whose cosine is the given
value.
=cut
sub acos {
abs ($_[0]) > 1 and confess <. The text of
this article makes it clear that the actual value of the
atmospheric extinction can vary greatly from the typical
values given even in the absence of cloud cover.
=cut
# Note that the "constant" 0.120 in Aaer (aerosol scattering) is
# based on a compromise value A0 = 0.050 in Green's equation 3
# (not exhibited here), which can vary from 0.035 in the winter to
# 0.065 in the summer. This makes a difference of a couple tenths
# at 20 degrees elevation, but a couple magnitudes at the
# horizon. Green also remarks that the 1.5 denominator in the
# same equation (a.k.a. the scale height) can be up to twice
# that.
sub atmospheric_extinction {
my ($elevation, $height) = @_;
my $cosZ = cos (PIOVER2 - $elevation);
my $X = 1/($cosZ + 0.025 * exp (-11 * $cosZ)); # Green 1
my $Aray = 0.1451 * exp (-$height / 7.996); # Green 2
my $Aaer = 0.120 * exp (-$height / 1.5); # Green 4
return ($Aray + $Aaer + 0.016) * $X; # Green 5, 6
}
=item $jd = date2jd ($sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr)
This subroutine converts the given date to the corresponding Julian day.
The inputs are as for B; $mon is in the range 0 -
11, and $yr is from 1900, with earlier years being negative. The year 1
BC is represented as -1900.
If less than 6 arguments are provided, zeroes will be prepended to the
argument list as needed.
The date is presumed to be in the Gregorian calendar. If the resultant
Julian Day is before $JD_GREGORIAN, the date is reinterpreted as being
from the Julian calendar.
The only validation is that the month be between 0 and 11 inclusive, and
that the year be not less than -6612 (4713 BC). Fractional days are
accepted.
The algorithm is from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", second
edition, chapter 7 ("Julian Day"), pages 60ff, but the month is
zero-based, not 1-based, and years are 1900-based.
=cut
our $DATETIMEFORMAT;
our $JD_GREGORIAN;
BEGIN {
$DATETIMEFORMAT = '%a %b %d %Y %H:%M:%S';
$JD_GREGORIAN = 2299160.5;
}
sub date2jd {
my @args = @_;
unshift @args, 0 while @args < 6;
my ($sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr) = @args;
$mon++; # Algorithm expects month 1-12.
$yr += 1900; # Algorithm expects zero-based year.
($yr < -4712) and croak "Error - Invalid year $yr";
($mon < 1 || $mon > 12) and croak "Error - Invalid month $mon";
if ($mon < 3) {
--$yr;
$mon += 12;
}
my $A = floor ($yr / 100);
my $B = 2 - $A + floor ($A / 4);
my $jd = floor (365.25 * ($yr + 4716)) +
floor (30.6001 * ($mon + 1)) + $day + $B - 1524.5 +
((($sec || 0) / 60 + ($min || 0)) / 60 + ($hr || 0)) / 24;
$jd < $JD_GREGORIAN and
$jd = floor (365.25 * ($yr + 4716)) +
floor (30.6001 * ($mon + 1)) + $day - 1524.5 +
((($sec || 0) / 60 + ($min || 0)) / 60 + ($hr || 0)) / 24;
return $jd;
}
use constant JD_OF_EPOCH => date2jd (gmtime (0));
=item $epoch = date2epoch ($sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr)
This is a convenience routine that converts the given date to seconds
since the epoch, going through date2jd() to do so. The arguments are the
same as those of date2jd().
If less than 6 arguments are provided, zeroes will be prepended to the
argument list as needed.
The functionality is the same as B, but this
function lacks timegm's limited date range under Perls before 5.12.0. If
you have Perl 5.12.0 or better, the core L
C will probably do what you want. If you have an earlier
Perl, L C may do what you want.
=cut
sub date2epoch {
my @args = @_;
unshift @args, 0 while @args < 6;
my ($sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr) = @args;
return (date2jd ($day, $mon, $yr) - JD_OF_EPOCH) * SECSPERDAY +
(($hr || 0) * 60 + ($min || 0)) * 60 + ($sec || 0);
}
# my ( $self, $station, @args ) = __default_station( @_ )
#
# This exportable subroutine checks whether the second argument embodies
# an Astro::Coord::ECI object. If so, the arguments are returned
# verbatim. If not, the 'station' attribute of the invocant is inserted
# after the first argument and the result returned. If the 'station'
# attribute of the invocant has not been set, an exception is thrown.
sub __default_station {
my ( $self, @args ) = @_;
if ( ! embodies( $args[0], 'Astro::Coord::ECI' ) ) {
my $sta = $self->get( 'station' )
or croak 'Station attribute not set';
unshift @args, $sta;
}
return ( $self, @args );
}
=item $rad = deg2rad ($degr)
This subroutine converts degrees to radians. If the argument is
C, C will be returned.
=cut
sub deg2rad { return defined $_[0] ? $_[0] * PI / 180 : undef }
=item $value = distsq (\@coord1, \@coord2)
This subroutine calculates the square of the distance between the two
sets of Cartesian coordinates. We do not take the square root here
because of cases (e.g. the law of cosines) where we would just have
to square the result again.
B that the subroutine does B assume three-dimensional
coordinates. If @coord1 and @coord2 have six entries, you will get a
six-dimensional distance.
=cut
sub distsq {
my ($a, $b) = @_;
(ref $a eq 'ARRAY' && ref $b eq 'ARRAY' && @$a == @$b) or
confess <[$inx] - $b->[$inx];
$sum += $delta * $delta;
}
return $sum
}
=item $seconds = dynamical_delta ($time);
This method returns the difference between dynamical and universal time
at the given universal time. That is,
$dynamical = $time + dynamical_delta ($time)
if $time is universal time.
The algorithm is from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd
Edition, Chapter 10, page 78.
=cut
sub dynamical_delta {
my ($time) = @_;
my $year = (gmtime $time)[5] + 1900;
my $t = ($year - 2000) / 100;
my $correction = .37 * ($year - 2100); # Meeus' correction to (10.2)
return (25.3 * $t + 102) * $t + 102 # Meeus (10.2)
+ $correction; # Meeus' correction.
}
=item $boolean = embodies ($thingy, $class)
This subroutine represents a safe way to call the 'represents' method on
$thingy. You get back true if and only if $thingy->can('represents')
does not throw an exception and returns true, and
$thingy->represents($class) returns true. Otherwise it returns false.
Any exception is trapped and dismissed.
This subroutine is called 'embodies' because it was too confusing to
call it 'represents', both for the author and for the Perl interpreter.
=cut
sub embodies {
my ($thingy, $class) = @_;
my $code = eval {$thingy->can('represents')};
return $code ? $code->($thingy, $class) : undef;
}
=item ($sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr, $wday, $yday, 0) = epoch2datetime ($epoch)
This convenience subroutine converts the given time in seconds from the
system epoch to the corresponding date and time. It is implemented in
terms of jd2date (), with the year and month returned from that
subroutine. The day is a whole number, with the fractional part
converted to hours, minutes, and seconds. The $wday is the day of the
week, with Sunday being 0. The $yday is the day of the year, with
January 1 being 0. The trailing 0 is the summer time (or daylight saving
time) indicator which is always 0 to be consistent with gmtime.
If called in scalar context, it returns the date formatted by
POSIX::strftime, using the format string in $DATETIMEFORMAT.
The functionality is the same as the core C, but this function
lacks gmtime's limited date range under Perls before 5.12.0. If you have
Perl 5.12.0 or better, the core C will probably do what you
want. If you have an earlier Perl, L
C may do what you want.
The input must convert to a non-negative Julian date. The exact lower
limit depends on the system, but is computed by -(JD_OF_EPOCH * 86400).
For Unix systems with an epoch of January 1 1970, this is -210866760000.
Additional algorithms for day of week and day of year come from Jean
Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 7 (Julian Day),
page 65.
=cut
sub epoch2datetime {
my ($time) = @_;
my $day = floor ($time / SECSPERDAY);
my $sec = $time - $day * SECSPERDAY;
($day, my $mon, my $yr, my $greg, my $leap) = jd2date (
my $jd = $day + JD_OF_EPOCH);
$day = floor ($day + .5);
my $min = floor ($sec / 60);
$sec = $sec - $min * 60;
my $hr = floor ($min / 60);
$min = $min - $hr * 60;
my $wday = ($jd + 1.5) % 7;
my $yd = floor (275 * ($mon + 1) / 9) - (2 - $leap) * floor (($mon +
10) / 12) + $day - 31;
wantarray and return ($sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr, $wday, $yd,
0);
return strftime ($DATETIMEFORMAT, $sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr,
$wday, $yd, 0);
}
=item $seconds = equation_of_time ($time);
This method returns the equation of time at the given B
time.
The algorithm is from W. S. Smart's "Text-Book on Spherical Astronomy",
as reported in Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition,
Chapter 28, page 185.
=cut
sub equation_of_time {
my $time = shift;
my $epsilon = obliquity ($time);
my $y = tan($epsilon / 2);
$y *= $y;
# The following algorithm is from Meeus, chapter 25, page, 163 ff.
my $T = jcent2000($time); # Meeus (25.1)
my $L0 = mod2pi(deg2rad((.0003032 * $T + 36000.76983) * $T # Meeus (25.2)
+ 280.46646));
my $M = mod2pi(deg2rad(((-.0001537) * $T + 35999.05029) # Meeus (25.3)
* $T + 357.52911));
my $e = (-0.0000001267 * $T - 0.000042037) * $T + 0.016708634;# Meeus (25.4)
my $E = $y * sin (2 * $L0) - 2 * $e * sin ($M) +
4 * $e * $y * sin ($M) * cos (2 * $L0) -
$y * $y * .5 * sin (4 * $L0) -
1.25 * $e * $e * sin (2 * $M); # Meeus (28.3)
return $E * SECSPERDAY / TWOPI; # The formula gives radians.
}
=item $time = find_first_true ($start, $end, \&test, $limit);
This function finds the first time between $start and $end for which
test ($time) is true. The resolution is $limit, which defaults to 1 if
not specified. If the times are reversed (i.e. the start time is after
the end time) the time returned is the last time test ($time) is true.
The test () function is assumed to be false for the first part of the
interval, and true for the rest. If this assumption is violated, the
result of this subroutine should be considered meaningless.
The calculation is done by, essentially, a binary search; the interval
is repeatedly split, the function is evaluated at the midpoint, and a
new interval selected based on whether the result is true or false.
Actually, nothing in this function says the independent variable has to
be time.
=cut
sub find_first_true {
my ($begin, $end, $test, $limit) = @_;
$limit ||= 1;
defined $begin
or confess 'Programming error - $begin undefined';
defined $end
or confess 'Programming error - $end undefined';
if ($limit >= 1) {
if ($begin <= $end) {
$begin = floor ($begin);
$end = floor ($end) == $end ? $end : floor ($end) + 1;
} else {
$end = floor ($end);
$begin = floor ($begin) == $begin ? $begin : floor ($begin) + 1;
}
}
my $iterator = (
$end > $begin ?
sub {$end - $begin > $limit} :
sub {$begin - $end > $limit}
);
while ($iterator->()) {
my $mid = $limit >= 1 ?
floor (($begin + $end) / 2) : ($begin + $end) / 2;
($begin, $end) = ($test->($mid)) ?
($begin, $mid) : ($mid, $end);
}
return $end;
}
=item $difference = intensity_to_magnitude ($ratio)
This method converts a ratio of light intensities to a difference in
stellar magnitudes. The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical
Algorithms", Second Edition, Chapter 56, Page 395.
Note that, because of the way magnitudes work (a more negative number
represents a brighter star) you get back a positive result for an
intensity ratio less than 1, and a negative result for an intensity
ratio greater than 1.
=cut
{ # Begin local symbol block
my $intensity_to_mag_factor; # Calculate only if needed.
sub intensity_to_magnitude {
return - ($intensity_to_mag_factor ||= 2.5 / log (10)) * log ($_[0]);
}
}
=item ($day, $mon, $yr, $greg, $leap) = jd2date ($jd)
This subroutine converts the given Julian day to the corresponding date.
The returns are year - 1900, month (0 to 11), day (which may have a
fractional part), a Gregorian calendar indicator which is true if the
date is in the Gregorian calendar and false if it is in the Julian
calendar, and a leap (or bissextile) year indicator which is true if the
year is a leap year and false otherwise. The year 1 BC is returned as
-1900 (i.e. as year 0), and so on. The date will probably have a
fractional part (e.g. 2006 1 1.5 for noon January first 2006).
If the $jd is before $JD_GREGORIAN, the date will be in the Julian
calendar; otherwise it will be in the Gregorian calendar.
The input may not be less than 0.
The algorithm is from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", second
edition, chapter 7 ("Julian Day"), pages 63ff, but the month is
zero-based, not 1-based, and the year is 1900-based.
=cut
sub jd2date {
my ($time) = @_;
my $mod_jd = $time + 0.5;
my $Z = floor ($mod_jd);
my $F = $mod_jd - $Z;
my $A = (my $julian = $Z < $JD_GREGORIAN) ? $Z : do {
my $alpha = floor (($Z - 1867216.25)/36524.25);
$Z + 1 + $alpha - floor ($alpha / 4);
};
my $B = $A + 1524;
my $C = floor (($B - 122.1) / 365.25);
my $D = floor (365.25 * $C);
my $E = floor (($B - $D) / 30.6001);
my $day = $B - $D - floor (30.6001 * $E) + $F;
my $mon = $E < 14 ? $E - 1 : $E - 13;
my $yr = $mon > 2 ? $C - 4716 : $C - 4715;
return ($day, $mon - 1, $yr - 1900, !$julian, ($julian ? !($yr % 4) : (
$yr % 400 ? $yr % 100 ? !($yr % 4) : 0 : 1)));
## % 400 ? 1 : $yr % 100 ? 0 : !($yr % 4))));
}
=item ($sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr, $wday, $yday, 0) = jd2datetime ($jd)
This convenience subroutine converts the given Julian day to the
corresponding date and time. All this really does is converts its
argument to seconds since the system epoch, and pass off to
epoch2datetime().
The input may not be less than 0.
=cut
sub jd2datetime {
my ($time) = @_;
return epoch2datetime(($time - JD_OF_EPOCH) * SECSPERDAY);
}
=item $century = jcent2000 ($time);
Several of the algorithms in Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms"
are expressed in terms of the number of Julian centuries from epoch
J2000.0 (e.g equations 12.1, 22.1). This subroutine encapsulates
that calculation.
=cut
sub jcent2000 {return jday2000 ($_[0]) / 36525}
=item $jd = jday2000 ($time);
This subroutine converts a Perl date to the number of Julian days
(and fractions thereof) since Julian 2000.0. This quantity is used
in a number of the algorithms in Jean Meeus' "Astronomical
Algorithms".
The computation makes use of information from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical
Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 7, page 62.
=cut
sub jday2000 {return ($_[0] - PERL2000) / SECSPERDAY}
=item $jd = julianday ($time);
This subroutine converts a Perl date to a Julian day number.
The computation makes use of information from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical
Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 7, page 62.
=cut
sub julianday {return jday2000($_[0]) + 2_451_545.0}
=item $ea = keplers_equation( $M, $e, $prec );
This subroutine solves Kepler's equation for the given mean anomaly
C<$M> in radians, eccentricity C<$e> and precision C<$prec> in radians.
It returns the eccentric anomaly in radians, to the given precision.
The C<$prec> argument is optional, and defaults to the radian equivalent
of 0.001 degrees.
The algorithm is Meeus' equation 30.7, with John M. Steele's amendment
for large values for the correction, given on page 205 of Meeus' book,
This subroutine is B used in the computation of satellite orbits,
since the models have their own implementation.
=cut
sub keplers_equation {
my ( $mean_anomaly, $eccentricity, $precision ) = @_;
defined $precision
or $precision = 1.74533e-5; # Radians, = 0.001 degrees
my $curr = $mean_anomaly;
my $prev;
# Meeus' equation 30.7, page 199.
{
$prev = $curr;
my $delta = ( $mean_anomaly + $eccentricity * sin( $curr
) - $curr ) / ( 1 - $eccentricity * cos $curr );
# Steele's correction, page 205
$curr = $curr + max( -.5, min( .5, $delta ) );
$precision < abs( $curr - $prev )
and redo;
}
return $curr;
}
=item $rslt = load_module ($module_name)
This convenience method loads the named module (using 'require'),
throwing an exception if the load fails. If the load succeeds, it
returns the result of the 'require' built-in, which is required to be
true for a successful load. Results are cached, and subsequent attempts
to load the same module simply give the cached results.
=cut
{ # Local symbol block. Oh, for 5.10 and state variables.
my %error;
my %rslt;
sub load_module {
my ($module) = @_;
exists $error{$module} and croak $error{$module};
exists $rslt{$module} and return $rslt{$module};
# I considered Module::Load here, but it appears not to support
# .pmc files. No, it's not an issue at the moment, but it may be
# if Perl 6 becomes a reality.
$rslt{$module} = eval "require $module";
$@ and croak ($error{$module} = $@);
return $rslt{$module};
}
} # End local symbol block.
=item $boolean = looks_like_number ($string);
This subroutine returns true if the input looks like a number. It uses
Scalar::Util::looks_like_number if that is available, otherwise it uses
its own code, which is lifted verbatim from Scalar::Util 1.19, which in
turn leans heavily on perlfaq4.
=cut
unless (eval {require Scalar::Util; Scalar::Util->import
('looks_like_number'); 1}) {
no warnings qw{once};
*looks_like_number = sub {
local $_ = shift;
# checks from perlfaq4
return 0 if !defined($_) || ref($_);
return 1 if (/^[+-]?\d+$/); # is a +/- integer
return 1 if (/^([+-]?)(?=\d|\.\d)\d*(\.\d*)?([Ee]([+-]?\d+))?$/); # a C float
return 1 if ($] >= 5.008 and /^(Inf(inity)?|NaN)$/i)
or ($] >= 5.006001 and /^Inf$/i);
return 0;
};
}
=item $maximum = max (...);
This subroutine returns the maximum of its arguments. If List::Util can
be loaded and 'max' imported, that's what you get. Otherwise you get a
pure Perl implementation.
=cut
unless (eval {require List::Util; List::Util->import ('max'); 1}) {
no warnings qw{once};
*max = sub {
my $rslt;
foreach (@_) {
defined $_ or next;
if (!defined $rslt || $_ > $rslt) {
$rslt = $_;
}
}
$rslt;
};
}
=item $minimum = min (...);
This subroutine returns the minimum of its arguments. If List::Util can
be loaded and 'min' imported, that's what you get. Otherwise you get a
pure Perl implementation.
=cut
unless (eval {require List::Util; List::Util->import ('min'); 1}) {
no warnings qw{once};
*min = sub {
my $rslt;
foreach (@_) {
defined $_ or next;
if (!defined $rslt || $_ < $rslt) {
$rslt = $_;
}
}
$rslt;
};
}
=item $theta = mod2pi ($theta)
This subroutine reduces the given angle in radians to the range 0 <=
$theta < TWOPI.
=cut
sub mod2pi {return $_[0] - floor ($_[0] / TWOPI) * TWOPI}
=item $delta_psi = nutation_in_longitude ($time)
This subroutine calculates the nutation in longitude (delta psi) for
the given B time.
The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd
Edition, Chapter 22, pages 143ff. Meeus states that it is good to
0.5 seconds of arc.
=cut
sub nutation_in_longitude {
my $time = shift;
my $T = jcent2000 ($time); # Meeus (22.1)
my $omega = mod2pi (deg2rad ((($T / 450000 + .0020708) * $T -
1934.136261) * $T + 125.04452));
my $L = mod2pi (deg2rad (36000.7698 * $T + 280.4665));
my $Lprime = mod2pi (deg2rad (481267.8813 * $T + 218.3165));
my $delta_psi = deg2rad ((-17.20 * sin ($omega) - 1.32 * sin (2 * $L)
- 0.23 * sin (2 * $Lprime) + 0.21 * sin (2 * $omega))/3600);
return $delta_psi;
}
=item $delta_epsilon = nutation_in_obliquity ($time)
This subroutine calculates the nutation in obliquity (delta epsilon)
for the given B time.
The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd
Edition, Chapter 22, pages 143ff. Meeus states that it is good to
0.1 seconds of arc.
=cut
sub nutation_in_obliquity {
my $time = shift;
my $T = jcent2000 ($time); # Meeus (22.1)
my $omega = mod2pi (deg2rad ((($T / 450000 + .0020708) * $T -
1934.136261) * $T + 125.04452));
my $L = mod2pi (deg2rad (36000.7698 * $T + 280.4665));
my $Lprime = mod2pi (deg2rad (481267.8813 * $T + 218.3165));
my $delta_epsilon = deg2rad ((9.20 * cos ($omega) + 0.57 * cos (2 * $L) +
0.10 * cos (2 * $Lprime) - 0.09 * cos (2 * $omega))/3600);
return $delta_epsilon;
}
=item $epsilon = obliquity ($time)
This subroutine calculates the obliquity of the ecliptic in radians at
the given B time.
The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd
Edition, Chapter 22, pages 143ff. The conversion from universal to
dynamical time comes from chapter 10, equation 10.2 on page 78.
=cut
use constant E0BASE => (21.446 / 60 + 26) / 60 + 23;
sub obliquity {
my $time = shift;
my $T = jcent2000 ($time); # Meeus (22.1)
my $delta_epsilon = nutation_in_obliquity ($time);
my $epsilon0 = deg2rad (((0.001813 * $T - 0.00059) * $T - 46.8150)
* $T / 3600 + E0BASE);
return $epsilon0 + $delta_epsilon;
}
=item $radians = omega ($time);
This subroutine calculates the ecliptic longitude of the ascending node
of the Moon's mean orbit at the given B time.
The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd
Edition, Chapter 22, pages 143ff.
=cut
sub omega {
my $T = jcent2000 (shift); # Meeus (22.1)
return mod2pi (deg2rad ((($T / 450000 + .0020708) * $T -
1934.136261) * $T + 125.04452));
}
=item $degrees = rad2deg ($radians)
This subroutine converts the given angle in radians to its equivalent
in degrees. If the argument is C, C will be returned.
=cut
sub rad2deg { return defined $_[0] ? $_[0] / PI * 180 : undef }
=item $value = tan ($angle)
This subroutine computes the tangent of the given angle in radians.
=cut
sub tan {return sin ($_[0]) / cos ($_[0])}
=item $value = theta0 ($time);
This subroutine returns the Greenwich hour angle of the mean equinox at
0 hours universal on the day whose time is given (i.e. the argument is
a standard Perl time).
=cut
sub theta0 {
my ($time) = @_;
return thetag (timegm (0, 0, 0, (gmtime $time)[3 .. 5]));
}
=item $value = thetag ($time);
This subroutine returns the Greenwich hour angle of the mean equinox at
the given time.
The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd
Edition, equation 12.4, page 88.
=cut
# Meeus, pg 88, equation 12.4, converted to radians and Perl dates.
sub thetag {
my ($time) = @_;
my $T = jcent2000 ($time);
return mod2pi (4.89496121273579 + 6.30038809898496 *
jday2000 ($time))
+ (6.77070812713916e-06 - 4.5087296615715e-10 * $T) * $T * $T;
}
=item $a = vector_cross_product( $b, $c );
This subroutine computes and returns the vector cross product of $b and
$c. Vectors are represented by array references. The cross product is
only defined if both arrays have 3 elements.
=cut
sub vector_cross_product {
my ( $b, $c ) = @_;
@{ $b } == 3 and @{ $c } == 3
or confess 'Programming error - vector_cross_product arguments',
' must be references to arrays of length 3';
return [
$b->[1] * $c->[2] - $b->[2] * $c->[1],
$b->[2] * $c->[0] - $b->[0] * $c->[2],
$b->[0] * $c->[1] - $b->[1] * $c->[0],
];
}
=item $a = vector_dot_product( $b, $c );
This subroutine computes and returns the vector dot product of $b and
$c. Vectors are represented by array references. The dot product is only
defined if both arrays have the same number of elements.
=cut
sub vector_dot_product {
my ( $b, $c ) = @_;
@{ $b } == @{ $c }
or confess 'Programming error - vector_dot_product arguments ',
'must be references to arrays of the same length';
my $prod = 0;
my $size = @{ $b } - 1;
foreach my $inx ( 0 .. $size ) {
$prod += $b->[$inx] * $c->[$inx];
}
return $prod;
}
=item $a = vector_magnitude( $b );
This subroutine computes and returns the magnitude of vector $b. The
vector is represented by an array reference.
=cut
sub vector_magnitude {
my ( $b ) = @_;
'ARRAY' eq ref $b
or confess 'Programming error - vector_magnitude argument ',
'must be a reference to an array';
my $mag = 0;
my $size = @{ $b } - 1;
foreach my $inx ( 0 .. $size ) {
$mag += $b->[$inx] * $b->[$inx];
}
return sqrt $mag;
}
=item $a = vector_unitize( $b );
This subroutine computes and returns a unit vector pointing in the same
direction as $b. The vectors are represented by array references.
=cut
sub vector_unitize {
my ( $b ) = @_;
'ARRAY' eq ref $b
or confess 'Programming error - vector_unitize argument ',
'must be a reference to an array';
my $mag = vector_magnitude( $b );
return [ map { $_ / $mag } @{ $b } ];
}
# __classisa( 'Foo', 'Bar' );
#
# Returns true if Foo->isa( 'Bar' ) is true, and false otherwise.
# In particular, returns false if the first argument is a
# reference.
sub __classisa {
my ( $invocant, $class ) = @_;
ref $invocant and return;
defined $invocant or return;
return $invocant->isa( $class );
}
# __instance( $foo, 'Bar' );
#
# Returns true if $foo is an instance of 'Bar', and false
# otherwise. In particular, returns false if $foo is not a
# reference, or if it is not blessed.
sub __instance {
my ( $object, $class ) = @_;
ref $object or return;
blessed( $object ) or return;
return $object->isa( $class );
}
# $epoch_time = _parse_time_iso_8601
#
# Parse ISO 8601 date/time. I do not intend to expose this, since
# it will probably go away when the satpass script is dropped. It
# would actually be in that script except for the fact that it can
# be more easily tested here, and because of the possibility that
# it will be used in App::Satpass2.
{
my %special_day_offset = (
yesterday => -SECSPERDAY(),
today => 0,
tomorrow => SECSPERDAY(),
);
sub _parse_time_iso_8601 {
my ( $string ) = @_;
my @zone;
$string =~ s/ \s* (?: ( Z ) |
( [+-] ) ( \d{2} ) :? ( \d{2} )? ) \z //smx
and @zone = ( $1, $2, $3, $4 );
my @date;
# ISO 8601 date
if ( $string =~ m{ \A
( \d{4} \D? | \d{2} \D ) # year: $1
(?: ( \d{1,2} ) \D? # month: $2
(?: ( \d{1,2} ) (?: \s* | \D? ) # day: $3
(?: ( \d{1,2} ) \D? # hour: $4
(?: ( \d{1,2} ) \D? # minute: $5
(?: ( \d{1,2} ) \D? # second: $6
( \d* ) # fract: $7
)?
)?
)?
)?
)?
\z
}smx ) {
@date = ( $1, $2, $3, $4, $5, $6, $7, undef );
# special-case 'yesterday', 'today', and 'tomorrow'.
} elsif ( $string =~ m{ \A
( yesterday | today | tomorrow ) # day: $1
(?: \D* ( \d{1,2} ) \D? # hour: $2
(?: ( \d{1,2} ) \D? # minute: $3
(?: ( \d{1,2} ) \D? # second: $4
( \d* ) # fract: $5
)?
)?
)?
\z }smx ) {
my @today = @zone ? gmtime : localtime;
@date = ( $today[5] + 1900, $today[4] + 1, $today[3], $2, $3,
$4, $5, $special_day_offset{$1} );
} else {
return;
}
my $offset = pop @date || 0;
if ( @zone && !$zone[0] ) {
my ( undef, $sign, $hr, $min ) = @zone;
$offset -= $sign . ( ( $hr * 60 + ( $min || 0 ) ) * 60 )
}
foreach ( @date ) {
defined $_ and s/ \D+ //smxg;
}
if ( $date[0] < 70 ) {
$date[0] += 100;
} elsif ( $date[0] >= 100 ) {
$date[0] -= 1900;
}
defined $date[1] and --$date[1];
defined $date[2] or $date[2] = 1;
my $frc = pop @date;
foreach ( @date ) {
defined $_ or $_ = 0;
}
my $time;
if ( @zone ) {
$time = timegm( reverse @date );
} else {
$time = timelocal( reverse @date );
}
if ( defined $frc && $frc ne '') {
my $denom = 1 . ( 0 x length $frc );
$time += $frc / $denom;
}
return $time + $offset;
}
}
1;
__END__
=back
=head1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to acknowledge Jean Meeus, whose book "Astronomical
Algorithms" (second edition) published by Willmann-Bell Inc
(L) provided several of the algorithms
implemented herein.
=head1 BUGS
Bugs can be reported to the author by mail, or through
L.
=head1 AUTHOR
Thomas R. Wyant, III (F)
=head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
Copyright (C) 2005-2012 by Thomas R. Wyant, III
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the same terms as Perl 5.10.0. For more details, see the full text
of the licenses in the directory LICENSES.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
without any warranty; without even the implied warranty of
merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
=cut
# ex: set textwidth=72 :